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December 29, 2008
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Tyrannosaurus rex by PaleoPastori Tyrannosaurus rex by PaleoPastori
realized for a 30 cm large tatoo

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Sauropsida
Superorder: Dinosauria
Order: Saurischia
Suborder: Theropoda
Superfamily: Tyrannosauroidea
Family: Tyrannosauridae
Subfamily: Tyrannosaurinae
Genus: Tyrannosaurus
Osborn, 1905
Species
T. rex (type)
Osborn, 1905
Synonyms
Manospondylus
Cope, 1892
Dynamosaurus
Osborn, 1905
?Nanotyrannus
Bakker, Williams & Currie, 1988
Stygivenator
Olshevsky, 1995
Dinotyrannus
Olshevsky, 1995
Tyrannosaurus (pronounced /tɨˌrænəˈsɔːrəs/ or /taɪˌrænoʊˈsɔːrəs/, meaning 'tyrant lizard';) is a genus of theropod dinosaur. The famous species Tyrannosaurus rex ('rex' meaning 'king' in Latin), commonly abbreviated to T. rex, is a fixture in popular culture around the world. It lived throughout what is now western North America, with a much wider range than other tyrannosaurids. Fossils of T. rex are found in a variety of rock formations dating to the last three million years of the Cretaceous Period, approximately 68 to 65 million years ago; it was among the last non-avian dinosaurs to exist prior to the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event.
Like other tyrannosaurids, Tyrannosaurus was a bipedal carnivore with a massive skull balanced by a long, heavy tail. Relative to the large and powerful hindlimbs, Tyrannosaurus forelimbs were small, though unusually powerful for their size, and bore two primary digits, along with a possible third vestigial digit. Although other theropods rivaled or exceeded T. rex in size, it was the largest known tyrannosaurid and one of the largest known land predators, measuring up to 13 metres (43 ft) in length,[1] up to 4 metres (13 ft) tall at the hips,[2] and up to 6.8 metric tons (7.5 short tons) in weight.[3] By far the largest carnivore in its environment, T. rex may have been an apex predator, preying upon hadrosaurs and ceratopsians, although some experts have suggested it was primarily a scavenger.
More than 30 specimens of T. rex have been identified, some of which are nearly complete skeletons. Soft tissue and proteins have been reported in at least one of these specimens. The abundance of fossil material has allowed significant research into many aspects of its biology, including life history and biomechanics. The feeding habits, physiology and potential speed of T. rex are a few subjects of debate. Its taxonomy is also controversial, with some scientists considering Tarbosaurus bataar from Asia to represent a second species of Tyrannosaurus and others maintaining Tarbosaurus as a separate genus. Several other genera of North American tyrannosaurids have also been synonymized with Tyrannosaurus.
Tyrannosaurus rex was one of the largest land carnivores of all time; the largest complete specimen, FMNH PR2081 ("Sue"), measured 12.8 metres (42 ft) long, and was 4.0 metres (13 ft) tall at the hips.[2] Mass estimates have varied widely over the years, from more than 7.2 metric tons (7.9 short tons),[4] to less than 4.5 metric tons (5.0 short tons),[5][6] with most modern estimates ranging between 5.4 and 6.8 metric tons (6.0 and 7.5 short tons).[7][8][9][3] Although Tyrannosaurus rex was larger than the well known Jurassic theropod Allosaurus, it was slightly smaller than Cretaceous carnivores Spinosaurus and Giganotosaurus.[10][11]
The neck of T. rex formed a natural S-shaped curve like that of other theropods, but was short and muscular to support the massive head. The forelimbs were long thought to bear only two digits, but there is an unpublished report of a third, vestigial digit in one specimen.[12] In contrast the hind limbs were among the longest in proportion to body size of any theropod. The tail was heavy and long, sometimes containing over forty vertebrae, in order to balance the massive head and torso. To compensate for the immense bulk of the animal, many bones throughout the skeleton were hollow, reducing its weight without significant loss of strength.[1]
The largest known T. rex skulls measure up to 5 feet (1.5 m) in length.[13] Large fenestrae (openings) in the skull reduced weight and provided areas for muscle attachment, as in all carnivorous theropods. But in other respects Tyrannosaurus’ skull was significantly different from those of large non-tyrannosauroid theropods. It was extremely wide at the rear but had a narrow snout, allowing unusually good binocular vision.[14][15] The skull bones were massive and the nasals and some other bones were fused, preventing movement between them; but many were pneumatized (contained a "honeycomb" of tiny air spaces) which may have made the bones more flexible as well as lighter. These and other skull-strengthening features are part of the tyrannosaurid trend towards an increasingly powerful bite, which easily surpassed that of all non-tyrannosaurids.[16][17][18] The tip of the upper jaw was U-shaped (most non-tyrannosauroid carnivores had V-shaped upper jaws), which increased the amount of tissue and bone a tyrannosaur could rip out with one bite, although it also increased the stresses on the front teeth.[19][20]


Life restoration of a Tyrannosaurus rex.
The teeth of T. rex displayed marked heterodonty (differences in shape).[21][1] The premaxillary teeth at the front of the upper jaw were closely packed, D-shaped in cross-section, had reinforcing ridges on the rear surface, were incisiform (their tips were chisel-like blades) and curved backwards. The D-shaped cross-section, reinforcing ridges and backwards curve reduced the risk that the teeth would snap when Tyrannosaurus bit and pulled. The remaining teeth were robust, like "lethal bananas" rather than daggers; more widely spaced and also had reinforcing ridges.[22] Those in the upper jaw were larger than those in all but the rear of the lower jaw. The largest found so far is estimated to have been 30 centimetres (12 in) long including the root when the animal was alive, making it the largest tooth of any carnivorous dinosaur.
[link]
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:iconauthor1212:
author1212 Featured By Owner Nov 2, 2013  Hobbyist Writer
Awsome
Reply
:icongothicsolitude:
GothicSolitude Featured By Owner Oct 7, 2013
Cool!...
Reply
:iconraptorkil:
raptorkil Featured By Owner Jan 12, 2013  Hobbyist Filmographer
epic, i am jealous, nicely done. My Trex compared to this one is bad :(
Reply
:icontripod2005:
tripod2005 Featured By Owner Jul 1, 2012
:iconcoolplz: Epic Pose!
Reply
:icont-rex989:
t-rex989 Featured By Owner May 24, 2012
You make a mean t-rex.
Reply
:iconteawithblood:
teawithblood Featured By Owner Mar 15, 2012  Student General Artist
Wow, very good! I like it so much. Can I take it for my t-shirt print, please?
Reply
:iconmasonday:
masonday Featured By Owner Oct 14, 2011
Cool!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Reply
:iconthea-nu:
Thea-Nu Featured By Owner Aug 18, 2011  Professional Traditional Artist
Love it!
Reply
:iconsameerprehistorica:
SameerPrehistorica Featured By Owner May 19, 2011  Hobbyist
Awesome...
Reply
:iconstasher-dragon:
stasher-dragon Featured By Owner May 12, 2011  Hobbyist General Artist
I wonder how they got up if they fell over. I'm sure procreating was a balancing act!
Reply
:icondreikaz:
Dreikaz Featured By Owner Jan 3, 2011  Hobbyist General Artist
Awesome movement! :)
Reply
:iconebelesaurus:
ebelesaurus Featured By Owner Apr 4, 2010  Student Filmographer
wow i love this!!!! must say it looks like a jurassic park t-rex!!!! dats wat i luv about it!!!!! well done!!!!!!
Reply
:iconcrouchingallosaurus:
CrouchingAllosaurus Featured By Owner Mar 31, 2010
Dinosaurs. They are far superior to us. They went out and fought tooth and claw everyday, as we cower behind our weapons of destruction and chaos.
Reply
:icon1422awoods:
1422awoods Featured By Owner Dec 19, 2009
Outstanding :)
Reply
:iconspilkerart:
spilkerart Featured By Owner Oct 22, 2009  Professional
Impressive!!
Reply
:iconrasa88:
Rasa88 Featured By Owner Sep 28, 2009  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Would you mind very much if I referenced this pose for a dragon of mine? :0 You've captured the movement just perfectly :0
Reply
:iconpaleopastori:
PaleoPastori Featured By Owner Oct 12, 2009  Professional Traditional Artist
DO IT!!! I'm really glad....don't forget to show it to me when it will be ready
Reply
:iconzjoriz:
zJoriz Featured By Owner Sep 28, 2009
You really know how to make 'em look exciting. Brilliant art!
Reply
:iconmagicmeg8:
magicmeg8 Featured By Owner Jun 28, 2009  Hobbyist Photographer
Wow, this is amazing! Great work! :D :+fav:

~Meg~
Reply
:iconblade-of-the-moon:
Blade-of-the-Moon Featured By Owner Mar 16, 2009  Professional Traditional Artist
They should use this design of yours for the Rex in JP4.... still similar but more..fearsome looking... ;D
Reply
:iconpaleopastori:
PaleoPastori Featured By Owner Mar 17, 2009  Professional Traditional Artist
U are very very kind!!
Reply
:iconblade-of-the-moon:
Blade-of-the-Moon Featured By Owner Mar 17, 2009  Professional Traditional Artist
Not at all... if they do get a 4th off the ground you should consider sending it to Spielburg or his people. You never know..they might use it... ;)
Reply
:iconpaleopastori:
PaleoPastori Featured By Owner Mar 17, 2009  Professional Traditional Artist
is not so good this rex...
Reply
:iconblade-of-the-moon:
Blade-of-the-Moon Featured By Owner Mar 17, 2009  Professional Traditional Artist
Huh ?

Looks fine to me...it would be concept art though..so prob just give him an idea of where the design could go...another artist did some figures for Art Asylum.. more ferocious-looking versions of the Jurassic Park animals..his Rex was much like yours...so they maybe leaning in that direction anyway.. ;)
Reply
:iconpaleopastori:
PaleoPastori Featured By Owner Mar 19, 2009  Professional Traditional Artist
Yesterday I meet the big dr Jack Horner: no more JP, he said....
Reply
:iconblade-of-the-moon:
Blade-of-the-Moon Featured By Owner Mar 19, 2009  Professional Traditional Artist
From what we've heard Universal still want sto do another film and are getting Marshall and Kennedy to work on it..even though it seems like they don't want to. :/
Reply
:iconpaleopastori:
PaleoPastori Featured By Owner Mar 20, 2009  Professional Traditional Artist
NO more JP!

"How to build a Dinosaur" is the new book by Jack Horner
I meet him last week in Italy, he have new ideas to bring to life
a dino, working on a chicken DNA, stopping that genus that working on the DNA of B.rex that they have prevented to the tail,
to the theeth and the claws to develope itself.
So, Marshall is more intelligent that what it seems....

I want a baby-dino running in my house.....soooooon
Reply
(1 Reply)
:iconhanxopx:
HANxOPX Featured By Owner Feb 27, 2009  Hobbyist Digital Artist
BTW what do you think of 'When Dinosaurs Ruled the Earth T-Rex VS Velociraptor' polystone diorama?
Reply
:iconpaleopastori:
PaleoPastori Featured By Owner Mar 1, 2009  Professional Traditional Artist
very nice, anatomy is perfect
Reply
:iconhanxopx:
HANxOPX Featured By Owner Feb 21, 2009  Hobbyist Digital Artist
I love your rexes and sure nothing better than the look of JP rex
Reply
:iconpaleopastori:
PaleoPastori Featured By Owner Feb 26, 2009  Professional Traditional Artist
Until yesterday: take a look to the new 1/15 T. rex sculpture by Shane Foulkes: in my opinion is the BEST rexes I've ever seen! Let me know...
Best,
Reply
:iconhanxopx:
HANxOPX Featured By Owner Feb 26, 2009  Hobbyist Digital Artist
link me! please ":D
Reply
:iconpaleopastori:
PaleoPastori Featured By Owner Feb 27, 2009  Professional Traditional Artist
[link]=Paleoart&idimmagine=202

Shane address: sfstudios@charter.net
ccstudios@att.net

OK?
Reply
:iconhanxopx:
HANxOPX Featured By Owner Feb 27, 2009  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Wow thanks! although I dont feel asking Shane ATM, I might wait until he post it to his web, maybe one day I might purchase from him. And your sketch is fantastic! yea this Rex looks better than JP's Rex in some ways more specifically with the body part it looks more like the real fossils IMO. I have faved both websites hopping to see more kool artwork from you guys.
Reply
:iconpaleopastori:
PaleoPastori Featured By Owner Mar 1, 2009  Professional Traditional Artist
there's a rex pic in the banner at the top on Shane site

Ciao!!
Reply
:iconpaleopastori:
PaleoPastori Featured By Owner Feb 27, 2009  Professional Traditional Artist
[link]
But the rex is new so write to Shane, tell him you are a friend of mine and ask for some pics.
Anyway there is a sketch of this beauty on my website, realized very quickly using blood-pencil!
Hope you like it!
Let me know...
Reply
:iconxenomorph01:
xenomorph01 Featured By Owner Jan 23, 2009  Student General Artist
That rex looks a bit like the one from jurassic park.
Reply
:iconpaleopastori:
PaleoPastori Featured By Owner Jan 25, 2009  Professional Traditional Artist
....yes,it's steel impressed in my mind.!
Reply
:iconixzidian2031:
ixzidian2031 Featured By Owner Jan 17, 2009  Professional Artist
freakn awsome!
Reply
:iconpaleopastori:
PaleoPastori Featured By Owner Jan 18, 2009  Professional Traditional Artist
Fernando,Dinosaurs are not "freaks",but more beautiful than as human
Reply
:iconixzidian2031:
ixzidian2031 Featured By Owner Jan 18, 2009  Professional Artist
i didnt say there freaks 0_0
Reply
:iconpaleopastori:
PaleoPastori Featured By Owner Jan 19, 2009  Professional Traditional Artist
OK man!!
Reply
:iconisay:
Isay Featured By Owner Dec 31, 2008  Student Digital Artist
This is one of your highest-impact artworks. I'm still amazed at how anatomically correct your art is, and at the same time, how striking the poses of your dinosaurs are.

If you had an artbook on sale, I'd buy it. :)
Reply
:iconpaleopastori:
PaleoPastori Featured By Owner Jan 2, 2009  Professional Traditional Artist
Ciao!I'm very glad you like my art.
You can purchase hight quality prints of my drawings;
if you prefere,I can prepare a book especially for you including prints of your favourites.(format A3:42x29.7cm./or A4:29.7x21cm.)
Please write to fabio.pastori@tiscalinet.it

At soon!
best,
Reply
:iconauroralmyth:
AuroralMyth Featured By Owner Dec 29, 2008  Student General Artist
the details are amazing! great work!
Reply
:iconsarabia-planet:
Sarabia-Planet Featured By Owner Dec 29, 2008
very good! i very like dinosaurs
Reply
:iconchaosinpsychosis:
ChaosInPsychosis Featured By Owner Dec 29, 2008
wow great work i love the detail
Reply
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